engineering

Engineering Capacity Deficit and Skills Shortage in Sub-Saharan Africa

Generally, the delivery of infrastructure is largely determined by adequacy of local capacity to supply technical requirements for project implementation at all its stages from planning, design, Builder In My Area, and operation. In sub-saharan Africa, the local construction firms may be able to handle small project works while leaving large construction projects to the employ of international consulting and construction companies due to lack of local capability for large project works. Supply constraints in some African countries gives an indication of the engineering capacity deficit problems common to nearly all African countries [1]. In analysing the constraints, it becomes clear that the capacity deficits arise from two critical underlying problems of lack of training for engineers and technical personnel, and building materials. The gravity of the lack of high level engineering skills among African countries has been established to be of a very high scale. The population served by a single engineer in Africa is up to 13,000 persons compared to 100 to 300 persons in most developed and emerging economies. For the civil engineering profession alone, the number of engineers serving a given population is even much smaller. For example, one civil engineer in local government in South Africa serves a population of about 33,000. These numbers are again higher for other African countries [2,3].
Information regarding skills gaps for the various professions in African countries is quite difficult to find. This may be related to shortage of research culture and capacity in African countries, a general problem in the field of engineering and other disciplines as well. But it can be roughly estimated that the national engineering skills gap of 30 to 50% typically represent the scale of shortage of these essentials skills in the African continent.
The problem is compounded by technical brain drain of the limited engineering capacity from developing countries to developed nations as a result of enticing opportunities offered to attract technically qualified personnel to sustain developed international economies. In most developed countries, the engineering skills present are continuously assessed to ensure adequate availability of required professional skills while identifying presence of possible skills gaps to be filled either through domestic training or scouting of highly qualified foreign engineers to be offered immigration visas. This is related to the nature of modern economies, being primarily industrial driven. Attempts by African countries to attract investments are sometimes hampered by poor existing infrastructure and lack of capacity, these being among the key factors used by investors in deciding their investment destinations.
References
[1] G. Zawdie, D.A Langford, The state of construction and infrastructure in Sub-Saharan Africa and strategies for a sustainable way forward, Dept of Civil Engineering, Univ of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 ONG, Scotland, UK, 13p.
[2] A. Lawless (2005), Numbers and needs: addressing imbalances Inspiring Gardens in the civil engineering profession, SAICE, Johannesburg, RSA
[3] A. Lawless (2007), Numbers and needs in local govt: civil engineering the critical profession for service delivery, SAICE, JHB, RSA…

Large Diameter Piles – Driving Engineering Forward

The foundations of a structure are irrefutably the most important aspect of Wisconsin Home Builders Floor Plans. Without a solid foundation, anything from a seaside pier to a garden shed will be rendered unsafe to use, but as this example suggests, depending on where the construction is taking place, the type of foundation needed will differ. Building an oil rig out in the open ocean raises a different set of obstacles to creating a one hundred storey sky scraper in the hustle and bustle of a major city. We take a look at how large diameter piles have helped the advancement of the construction industry.
Piling is used for foundations in everything from sea defences to house building, and they come in a variety of materials, shapes and sizes. Wooden piling is often used to support structures that have their foundations in the water as Business Plan For Construction Company Ppt without the presence of oxygen, wood will not degrade. Other types of piling use steel and concrete depending on the application. Some piles are hollow, whilst others are solid, depending on the type of ground that is being worked on.
Other piles only exist once they have been made on site. By using a hollow drill to bore into the ground, the core of mud or soil can be extracted by forcing a high pressure stream of concrete through the middle of the drill. This causes the original material to ejected and replaced by the concrete mix. Once set this then forms another type of piling. Large diameter piles on the other hand, are specially constructed for specialist purposes, one of which is construction in the marine environment, as they have many advantages over wooden piling options.
The hollow nature of large diameter piles means that less excavation is needed to insert the pillars. This is an obvious advantage in the open ocean where traditional boring techniques cannot be used and alternative boring methods are costly. Being able to utilize the hollow nature of large diameter piles to provide sturdy foundations for constructions in the open ocean is a much needed development in construction and engineering.
In addition to this, the hollow nature of the piles uses less material, an essential factor with such large construction components. The advantageous side-effect of this is that hollow piling produces an incredibly strong structure capable of bearing a huge amount of weight even in the most unstable of strata. From silty sands to soft clay and even uneven lose rock beds, large diameter piling is driving the path of extreme engineering and construction ever onward.…