surveying

Land Surveying

Land Surveying or Surveying involves measuring of dimensional relationships between points, lines, and physical attributes on or close to the Earth’s surface. In essence, surveying involves measuring of horizontal distances, elevation differences, directions, and angles. Once these basic determinations or measurements are obtained, those are used later to the calculation of areas and volumes and to the fixing of locations concerning some coordinate system. Surveying, as we know, is mainly used to establish and measure property lines; to set out buildings, roads, bridges, waterways, sewers, and pipelines for construction; and to obtain topographic data for turning out maps and charts.
It is assumed that horizontal distances are parallel to a common plane. Similarly, each measurement provides both length and direction. Length is normally indicated in feet or in meters. The direction is given as a bearing of the azimuth angle to a reference meridian. The meridian is usually taken as the north-south direction. Moreover, the concept of control or reference point is applied to the position of lines as well as for their directions. The point of origin is established for the lines of surveys. Commonly, most coordinate systems have the origin placed west and south of the area to be surveyed, so that all coordinates are positive in the north-east quadrant. The Land Surveying involves vertical measurement which provides the third dimension to an object’s position. Normally this dimension is given as a distance above some reference point or surface such as mean sea level, called the datum. Mean sea level is established by averaging high and low tide levels during a lunar month.
The Importance of 2000 Sq Ft House Plans 1 Floor Land Surveying
Land surveying is mainly focusing on establishment of property boundaries through systematic study, inspection, gathering information through field observations and measurements and study of legal instruments related to property. Similarly, it involves the re-establishment of cadastral surveys and land boundaries based on documented records and historical evidence. Land Surveying also include certifying surveys (as per the statute or local ordinance requirements) of subdivision plats/maps, registered land surveys, judicial surveys, and space delineation. Land surveying can also be associated with services such as mapping and related data accumulation, construction layout surveys, precision measurements of length, angle, elevation, area, and volume, as well as horizontal and vertical control surveys, and the analysis and utilization of land survey data.
It is essential to note that Land Surveying has been an important function in improvement of the the human environment. It has been an integral part of planning and implementation of any type of construction. Its latest usage has spanned into the field of transportation, buildings, telecommunications, mapping and establishment of legal boundaries of land ownership.
Instruments Used In New Build House Features Land Surveying
Until recently the basic tools used for land surveying were, tape measuring the short distances, a Level for determining the elevation differences, and theodolite for to measure the angles horizontally and vertically along with triangulation. Today, more sophisticated instrument such as total …

Volumetric Surveying

What is Volumetrics?
The measurement of the inside of a three-dimensional area is known as its volume. This is easily illustrated by looking at a coffee mug. By measuring the diameter of the mug and calculating its height, you can determine exactly how much liquid will fill it to the brim. This same method can be used to determine the volume of virtually any three-dimensional object. The complexity of a shape in nature, however, is one reason why it is necessary to hire a surveyor to do the necessary and highly intricate calculations for any land-type application.
Who Needs Volumetrics?
One of the most common uses of volumetrics is in the construction and landscaping industries. It is sometimes referred to as “cut and fill,” in that material is cut from one location and moved in volume to fill another. First it must be determined how much matter-dirt, rocks, and so on-is to be extracted. Then a suitable place must be found that will accommodate the same volume of material, if not more. The location receiving the cut material must also have its contour (slope) and other factors included in the analysis.
Not only is it important to determine that the receiving zone is adequately sized to accept the transported material, but one must ensure that it will stay put. Municipal water utilities use volumetrics to measure the amount of water in a reservoir and how close it is to capacity. Mining companies worry about what they are digging up and where the excess-often called tailings-can be safely stored. Golf course designers use cut-and-fill measurements to scoop out areas for sand traps and use the removed dirt to build up ridges and smooth out fairways.
Using a Surveyor to Determine Volumetrics
The trained surveyor has a number of tools at his or her command. While it is possible to determine the volume of an area by using ground-based surveying alone, the easiest method will add in airborne surveying and the process known as photogrammetry (aerial photography). Using these two techniques together will help achieve the most accurate results possible. On the ground-based side, a surveyor will use a total station (a highly sophisticated electronic version of the old surveyor’s transit) tied to a GPS network, plus a laser rangefinder. This latter device uses laser light to determine the exact distance from the base station to a particular point.
The resulting measurements are stored in a software database. Aboard the aircraft is an aerial camera that photographs the target area with fairly high resolution. Many airborne surveyors now employ digital cameras that capture imagery in a format that easily merges with the data collected on the ground to create what is called a three-dimensional digital terrain model (DTM). However, even older, film-based aerial cameras are quite sufficient to achieve similar results. However, the photos must go through a secondary digitization process in order to prove useful in building the DTM.
Calculations Pay Application Construction Template
To determine the volume of a particular …